ESUT JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES Journal of Social Sciences FACULTY OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES, ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY en-US ESUT JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES Evaluation of UNN Students Awareness, Knowledge and Perception of Fake News Detection Algorithms in Detecting Online Fake News. <p>This study sought to assess students’ awareness, knowledge and perception of fake news detection algorithm in detecting fake news online fake news. The objectives of the study were to examine the Awareness, knowledge and perception of the students on fake news detection algorithm in detecting fake news online. The study adopted a quantitative research through survey technique. Using Chochran sampling size determinant, a sample size of 384 was drawn from the population of 36, 000 undergraduate students of University of Nigeria using a multi stage technique sampling technique. Questionnaire was used to elicit response from the students. The study found out that students are aware and knowledgeable about fake news detection algorithm in detecting fake news online. And their perception is positive and favourable. Among others, the study recommends that audience should cultivate and maintain the habit of factchecking news stories online to avoid being misinformed by the eggs of impunity of online spaces.</p> Ajonina Mbong Kelly Chinwe Okpoko Copyright (c) 2024 ESUT JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 2024-02-19 2024-02-19 9 1 Mass Media, Communication Policy and National Security <p>The mass media serve as effective tools for national security when policymakers utilize them judiciously for the promotion of national peace. The recent surge in insecurity in Nigeria, exacerbated during the administration of former President Muhammadu Buhari through the processes of Fulanization, politicization of the security system, and the biased handling of bandits and killer herders, underscores the need for Nigerian policymakers to revise the communication policy in alignment with the current national security landscape. This study, guided by the social responsibility theory of mass communication and employing descriptive analysis, highlights that major political stakeholders, who function as policymakers, should play a constructive role in fostering peace in Nigeria by addressing security issues impartially. It emphasizes the imperative need to address security challenges such as Boko Haram, banditry, infrastructural failures on highways, cybercrimes, political killings, Fulani herders' atrocities, kidnapping for ransom, unknown gunmen, and others through a robust communication policy and fearless media reporting. The research also underscores the importance of political leaders abandoning parochial agendas against Nigerian citizens. It emphasizes that ethnicity and regional sentiments should not infiltrate the country's security apparatus. Recommendations include revisiting highway maintenance policies, overhauling the machinery of national security to pave the way for peace in Nigeria, and encouraging the flourishing of investigative journalism and fearless reporting.</p> Ifeanyi Ottah Chinwe Catherine Okpoko Copyright (c) 2024 ESUT JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 2024-02-19 2024-02-19 9 1 Social Media's Role in Shaping Contemporary News Discourse on the 2023 Election Petition Cases in Enugu State <p>This study investigates the impact of social media on the discourse surrounding the 2023 Election Petition Cases in Enugu state. The main objective is to understand how social media influences public perception and discourse during critical political events. Employing the Agenda-Setting Theory and Social Identity Theory, the study explores the agenda-setting function of social media and its role in reinforcing existing beliefs, polarization, and shaping opinions. The methodology involves a multifaceted approach comprising social media content analysis, sentiment analysis, and surveys. Data collection spans platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, and blogs. Statistical analyses and clustering techniques are employed to validate hypotheses regarding the frequency of discussions, polarization of opinions, and exposure to diverse viewpoints. The results reveal a strong correlation between social media discussions' frequency and the prominence of specific allegations related to the election cases, validating the influence of social media in agenda-setting. Sentiment analysis highlights polarization within discourse, showcasing divergent viewpoints on the legitimacy of the election outcome. Survey findings indicate the reinforcement of existing beliefs among users, restricting exposure to diverse perspectives. The study concludes that social media significantly shapes public discourse during critical events, emphasizing the need for interventions. Recommendations include media literacy programs, platform regulations for balanced content exposure, promotion of diverse content, and advocating for responsible social media usage. These recommendations aim to foster a healthier online discourse, encourage informed opinions, and enhance democratic participation while mitigating the negative impacts of social media on public perception and discourse.</p> Chioma Blessing Ajibo Chinwe Catherine Okpoko Copyright (c) 2024 ESUT JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 2024-02-19 2024-02-19 9 1 Mass Media and Challenges of Fake News <p>Mass media are the conventional media of mass communication before the emergency of the new media. The conventional media are empowered and are regarded as the members of fourth estate of the realm whose work among others is to keep the people abreast of information, providing clues on security matters and divulging information leading to insecurity in the country. Since the dream of marshall Mcluhan came through in the late 20th century, the globe has been hit with many positive technological transitions which have transformed society in virtually every facets of human life. The product of the dream (new media technology or Internet) has conquered&nbsp; the barrier of time and space or distance in Communication. However, the indiscriminate use of the new media over time due to divergent interest in many quarters, becomes the brainchild of fake news in contemporary society. In Nigeria, fake news has added to the current challenges of insecurity, leading to the series of social unrest and tensions – violence, conflict and crisis of different categories. Employing a Library research technique( qualitative research design), secondary data was used in the data collection for the study.&nbsp; The researcher utilized four theories for the research: Conspiracy theory, Inoculation theory, Media literacy theory and Social responsibility theory, forming the theoretical framework to guide the study. This paper finally calls on all the stakeholders; every individual and government to put all hands on deck to nip the distribution of fake news in the bud.</p> Jude Onyebuchi Agama Chinwe Catherine Okpoko Copyright (c) 2024 ESUT JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 2024-02-19 2024-02-19 9 1 Historical Cost Method in Human Resource Accounting <p>This study investigated historical cost method in human resource accounting: An evaluation. Human resources, a crucial asset for any organization, play a significant role in business and the economy. Human resource accounting is a relatively new concept that has grown in prominence in financial statement preparation around the world. The historical cost technique is one of the most popular methods because, like standard accounting procedures, it calculates an employee's worth using the whole historical expenditures associated with hiring an individual. This strategy necessitates accounting for the cost of the staff investment. One of the drawbacks of this strategy is that it requires decisions on which costs to expense and which to capitalize. The objective of this study is to examine historical cost method in human resource accounting.&nbsp; The methodology adopted for this study is library approach which focuses on the review of the extant literature on historical cost method in human resource accounting. It was observed in the literature that human resources are critical assets to the organization and significant in the generation of value. To this end, the human resources should be capitalized rather than expensed on the financial statements. The study concludes that human resources are the most valuable asset that an organization may have. Such critical resources, which require significant capital to generate future streams of income, should be recognized as an intangible asset rather than expensed on the statement of comprehensive income. Because human resources are critical to the value creation process and a source of long-term competitive advantage, accounting bodies should create a generally accepted basis for valuing, recording, and disclosing human resources accounting information in an organization's financial statements. The study recommends that historical cost method in human resource accounting should be adopted by organizations as this is already used in the statement of profit or loss and is easy and aligns the historical cost nature of the financial reports.</p> Felix Osayabor Emovon Peter Okoeguale Ibadin Copyright (c) 2024 ESUT JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 2024-03-05 2024-03-05 9 1 The Role of Guidance Counsellors in Curbing the Menace of Drug Abuse among Secondary School Students in Nigeria <p>Drug Abuse is a global problem deviling many countries in the world and the rate at which this problem is spreading calls for urgent attention to prevent the situation from getting out of control, particularly among secondary school students in Nigeria. Many of these students engaged in drug abuse out of frustration, poverty, curiosity, lack of parental supervision, lack of guidance and counselling, negative peer influence, and social media influence. The use of marijuana, tramadol, alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, cough syrup and other drugs have become a common practice among students. The paper therefore focuses on the role of guidance counsellors in curbing the menace of drug abuse among secondary school students. It also covers a review of relevant literature on warning signs of drug abuse, drugs commonly abused in schools, counselling theories on drug abuse, causes of drug abuse and its effects among secondary school students. The paper suggested that drug abuse counselling should be an integral part of school curriculum; a method of management which focuses on specific problems arising from the abuse of drug. Counsellors should be equipped with adequate skills and strategies to handle students with behavioural problems in school; and they should always organise lectures, rallies, seminars and film shows for students on the adverse effects and preventive measures on drug abuse.</p> John Chukwuewene UWADIA Rasaq Abimbola FADIPE Olajide Charles KAYODE Phebe Blessing OLUWWOLE Copyright (c) 2024 ESUT JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 9 1 Awareness and Perception of Undergraduate Students on Hazards Associated with Substance Abuse among Students <p><em>Substance abuse is on the rise among youths in Nigeria. An effective way of managing substance abuse is by advocacy and publicity. These can be achieved in sundry ways. Therefore the present study was designed to collect data on the awareness and perception of university students on the hazards of substance abuse.</em> <em>A well-structured questionnaire containing the indices for substance abuse advocacy and publicity was developed and uploaded online amongst Nnamdi Azikiwe University Students social media platforms. The members of the platforms were encouraged to participate in the online survey. The online submission platform was preferred since the instrument for data collection was also meant as an advocacy and publicity agent. The online submission also guaranteed the confidentiality of the participants. The study was conducted between May 2023 and August 2023. A total of 108 participants responded to the questionnaire. The data were expressed in frequencies while chi-square and likelihood ratio were used to evaluate data for interpretations. Significant value was place at p&lt;0.05.</em> <em>The 4 most predominant substances abused were Indian hemp (29.6%), Methamphetamine (25.9%), Cocaine (15.7%) and Marijuana (11.1%) and the 3 most predominant impact of substance abuse were increased craving (45.4%), untidy appearance (19.4%) and emotional imbalance (11.1%), (X<sup>2</sup>= 53.500; P&lt;0.001 &amp; X<sup>2</sup>=129.037; P&lt;0.001)respectively. The perception that substance abuse is associated with infection (73.1%) was high (X<sup>2</sup>=80.991; p&lt;0.001) but the awareness of Rehabilitation centres (30.6%) for substance abuse victims was poor (X<sup>2</sup>=13.885; p&lt;0.001). Crosstab analysis showed both perception of infections and awareness of rehabilitation centres (X<sup>2</sup>=6.530; p=0.038; Likelihood ratio= 7.438; p=0.024). About 95% of the participants proffered the development of a curriculum for advocacy and publicity of substance abuse as panacea in stemming the problem. </em><em>It was</em> <em>observed that University students are aware of the menace of substance abuse but are not aware of existing rehabilitation centres for victims of substance abuse. It is the opinion of the authors that a well-developed curriculum is necessary for advocacy and publicity. </em></p> Ogochukwu Nneka Onyenekwe Chinedum Charles Onyenekwe Copyright (c) 2024 ESUT JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 9 1 Alternative to Eurocentric Development Theory: African-centered theory of Development <p>The central thesis of this paper is that Africa needs to formulate a development theory that should guide her quest for development. It is the submission of the paper that the development theories and prescriptions that have been sold to Africa cannot take her to development as they are rooted in a social, historical, and political setting that are completely different from those that obtain in Africa. Arising from the faulty premise of Western social science, an alternative development theory is suggested, one that values the human person, where spirituality is central, and the environment enjoys a prime place. All development is ideologically driven, African development should be ethically driven.</p> Mohammed Habib Nu'uman Copyright (c) 2024 ESUT JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 2024-04-07 2024-04-07 9 1 An Exploration of Police-Public Cooperation Challenges <p>This study explores the challenges faced by officers engaged in community policing in southwestern Nigeria, utilising theoretical frameworks from Herzberg's two-factor theory and open systems theory. These challenges often lead to job dissatisfaction and reduced commitment among officers, necessitating strategies to empower officers in navigating societal dynamics, alleviating job dissatisfaction, and fostering stronger commitment to community policing. The research aims to explore obstacles presented by community members, underlying factors contributing to these challenges, and the nature and consequences of these challenges on officers and their commitment to community policing. Employing a qualitative approach with phenomenological methodology, the study conducts in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) with officers from two state commands. Thematic analysis highlights challenges hindering community policing efforts in Nigeria, including deep-rooted distrust, negative perceptions, and historical injustices towards law enforcement. Factors such as fear of reprisal, systemic discrimination, and corruption within law enforcement exacerbate these issues. Recommendations include fostering transparency, procedural justice, accountability, and community empowerment to rebuild trust and enhance collaboration between police and communities. Legislative reforms and policy changes are also essential to overcome legal obstacles and promote decentralisation efforts in policing. Addressing economic disparities and investing in education and community development are crucial for creating environments conducive to successful collaborative policing efforts, ultimately fostering safer and more resilient communities.</p> Bashirat Abiodun Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2024 ESUT JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 2024-04-23 2024-04-23 9 1